Can you add design elements to an instance of a component?

Is it possible to add new design elements to an instance of a component without touching the component?

In Adobe XD there is a feature where you can create a component and use the instance of that component and add elements to that instance while still preserving the style of the master component. However, in Figma, it does not seem possible.

Am I wrong?

You’re right. In Figma you can change things like fonts and colors, and you can remove elements by hiding them, but you can’t add to a component without editing the component.